Root canal treatment has three steps:
1. Access opening:
This is the first step where an opening is created in order to reach the infected pulp area using a dental drill. After the access is gained, the infected contents of the pulp chamber are carefully removed using special instruments. An anterior tooth has only root where as a posterior tooth may have more than three roots. There fore it is necessary to remove the infected pulp from all the root canals present in a single tooth.
2. Biomechanical preparation: In this step the hollow space which once contained the infected pulp is cleaned and shaped. Cleaning is usually done with the help of saline water and thin dental files. These files are moved along the surface of the root canal making it large and smooth. This procedure not only removes traces of bacteria from the root canal, but also makes the root canal more receptive to the filling that is to follow.
3. Obturation: Once the canals have been cleaned with the files, the canals are filled with a special filling material. The purpose of this filling material is to seal the canals and prevent future infections inside the tooth.
After the canals have been filled, the tooth is covered by a
crown. This protects the now fragile tooth from fracture. It is important that the crown be placed soon after the root canal is finished otherwise once the tooth fractures, saving the tooth becomes near impossible.